Anatomy of a concrete wall – what are all these layers called?


So my partner and I are trying to resurface a concrete wall in an old house in Taiwan. Before I get into the nitty gritty of asking how, I just want to clarify my terminology first – I think I've got plaster and some other things confused.

This is what the room looked like after she and I finished scraping off all the loose material we could yesterday afternoon.

I used to think the top layer was plaster, but after watching some videos on YouTube, I'm beginning to think the plaster is the cracked, gray layer underneath, and the concrete is just below that. (I'm also hearing that ‘stucco’ is an alternative term for plaster, and that it's called ‘mud’ when wet?)

Is that right? If so, what is the (formerly white, powdery) layer on...

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The walls look and sound like plaster, probably over wooden lath. The lath is then nailed to wooden studs at intervals, probably at 16 inch centers.

A common approach to hanging art and mirrors on both plaster and plasterboard (drywall) is to use picture hooks with thin, hardened nails, such as these

The nails are sharp enough and thin enough not to do damage to most plaster. The hooks (properly sized and in multiples) are strong enough to hold up over 100 lbs. Canvases on stretchers should be no problem unless they are many feet long.

Use at least two hooks to spread the load and improve leveling of hte pictures.

When the load approaches 100 lbs., extends out from the wall, or is subject to movement, it's time to find studs, or at least heavy duty toggle bolts.

Images and links are illustrative only, not an endorsement of goods or...

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In anatomy, the abdominal wall represents the boundaries of the abdominal cavity. The abdominal wall is split into the posterior (back), lateral (sides) and anterior (front) walls.

There is a common set of layers covering and forming all the walls: the deepest being the visceral peritoneum, which covers many of the abdominal organs (most of the large and small intestines, for example), and the parietal peritoneum- which covers the visceral peritoneum below it, the extraperitoneal fat, the transversalis fascia, the internal and external oblique and transversus abdominis aponeurosis, and a layer of fascia, which has different names according to what it covers (e.g., transversalis, psoas fascia).

In medical vernacular, the abdominal wall most commonly refers to the layers composing the anterior abdominal wall which, in addition to the layers mentioned above, includes the three layers of muscle: the transversus abdominis (transverse abdominal muscle), the internal...

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Concrete retaining walls are used in various locations to keep soil and other materials firmly in place. There are several different types of concrete retaining walls designed for various applications. A gravity retaining wall is thick at the bottom and narrow at the top while a counterfort wall is situated above and below the ground level. Cantilever concrete retaining walls have the same thickness from top to bottom and a very wide support footing. Buttressed walls are similar to the counterfort type but face in the opposite direction. Anchored retaining walls are mechanically supported by tethers.

Gravity concrete retaining walls are the most commonly used type and typically precast. This type of wall is usually no more than 4 feet (1.2 m) high and frequently utilized along roadways. Gravity retaining walls feature a thick base that angles upward to a narrow top. The angled side typically faces outward to prevent the structure from toppling over under a load. The...

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Common bond

is a brick pattern that very closely aligns with how a traditional, load-bearing brick wall would appear. A traditional brick wall was composed of several wythes (layers) of brick, one behind the other. Every few courses, the bricks would be laid perpendicular to the wall. This course tied together the wythes and gave the wall structural stability.

The result is that the brick ends, or headers, are exposed for view. The number of courses of stretchers (the long side of a brick) between each header course would determine if the pattern is an American bond, Scottish bond, English bond or some other style. Also, while the header course is all headers in this illustration, it can be a combination of headers and stretchers to create a stretcher bond pattern.

A nice design element of a common bond pattern is the ability to change the brick color or texture or both at the header course. This is certainly something to play around with to get the design just the...

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Scalp is the soft tissue layer covering the Bony vault over the brain. Scalp is a fusion of 5 layers of soft tissue.

S: Skin C: Superfacial Fascia or Sub Cutaneous Tissue A: Musculo Aponeurotic layer L: Loose sub Aponeurotic layer P: Periosteum

S – Skin: It is the layer of the scalp which consists of many hair follicles, sabeceous glands and sweat glands.

C – Sub Cutaneous layer or Superfacial fascia: This layer contains Blood Vessels and Nerves of the scalp. The walls of the blood vessels have fibrous strands fixed to them which prevents retraction of blood vessels when injured.

A – Musculo Aponeurotic layer or galea aponeurotica: As the name suggests it consists of frontal and occipital bellies of occipitofrontalis muscle. The frontal belly causes horizontal wrinkles on the forehead and help in raising eyebrows. As the first, second and third layers of the scalp are fused together the movement caused by the galea aponeurotica leads to the forward and...

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This follows the page introducing the stomach - with diagrams of the basic areas of the stomach and the outer-layers of the stomach.

Also recall the list of layers of the wall of the stomach.

This information is repeated here in the form of the diagram below:

(1) Layers of the Stomach Wall

The epithelial cells that line the stomach form the mucosal epithelium layer.

When the stomach is empty the mucosa lies in large folds called rugae and which look like wrinkles. The rugae flatten as the stomach fills. In order to identify the different types of cells that line the stomach and the functions of each of these types of cells it is necessary to describe the inner-layers of the stomach (i.e. the layers of the mucosa).

The surface of the mucosa is a layer of nonciliated simple columnar epithelial cells called surface mucous cells.

There are also many columns of secretory cells called gastric glands that line narrow...

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Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Bukovinian State Medical University


on methodical meeting of the Department of Anatomy, Topographical anatomy and Operative Surgery

“………”…………………….2008 р. (Protocol №……….)

The chief of department

professor ……………………….……Yu.T.Achtemiichuk

“………”…………………….2008 р.


for the 2nd-year foreign students of English-spoken groups of the Medical Faculty

(speciality “General medicine”)

for independent work during the preparation to practical studies

the Theme of studies

“Topographical anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall.

The methods of laparotomy”


Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery

of the Head, Neck, Thorax and Abdomen

Semantic module 3

“Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery of the Abdomen”

Chernivtsi – 2008

1. Actuality of theme:


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A retaining wall, as the name implies, is a wall meant to retain something. Engineering wise, a retaining wall imposes lateral forces against the wall such as wind, earth, fluids, etc. However, in the construction world, everyone understands it as been a wall built to retain soil or earth. In fact, many times the term retaining wall usually infers a concrete retaining wall.

So, in terms of performing a function, a retaining wall is just a retaining wall. The only difference between the types of retaining walls has to do with the way the retaining is done. There are many different types of retaining walls but in this article we'll deal with the most common ones (which happen to be also the most cheap and economical): concrete (cantilever) retaining walls and (modular or segmented) block or stone retaining walls.

A concrete retaining wall usually refers to a cantilever retaining wall. The reason it's cantilevered is because the wall is being supported by the footing...

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