Is there a freezing-water-resistant metal pipe?


Be more accurate to assume the exposed pipe is in a basement/crawl space or garage rather than an abandoned house. Or a house being left not used over the winter?

If there is flow, the problem becomes a conflict between the "warm" water from the street system (assume 40-45 deg F if the water main is buried 2-3 feet (1 meter maybe) underground?) continuous flowing in the pipe and the "room's" ability to remove heat from the outside of the pipe.

Given enough flow, there never will be ice formed because the water doesn't get cold enough to freeze before it leaves the room. Given too little flow, the ice will have a chance to form - which will either reduce flow further and lead to icing completely; or to a restriction in flow and increase in velocity which will remove the ice. Depends on what is moving your water.

If no flow, then the whole problem changes and (eventually) ALL of the water in the static parts of the system will freeze when the pipes and water...

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Your rule of thumb relating temperature and pressure applies to gases, under adiabatic conditions (in an insulated container) because the work done to increase the pressure increases the internal energy. In an isothermal change , you increase the pressure slowly and the excess internal energy leaks away to the surroundings. What I am saying is that high pressure doesn't actually imply a higher temperature. Increasing pressure does, however, involve an input of energy. (Subtle difference)

Where you have a change of state (or even interaction between molecules) the simple model no longer applies. When water is frozen (near 0C), you can melt it by increasing the pressure (e.g. under ice skate blades). The energy you have added supplies the latent heat of melting.

The pressure due to freezing is not 'unstoppable' and you can delay freezing if you keep the water in a strong enough container. The temperature could not 'go up' because the surroundings would be taking energy...

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WINTERIZE A BUILDING - home - CONTENTS: How to winterize or freezeproof a building - how to set the down thermostat or turn off heat entirely. How to avoid freezing water supply pipes and drain piping, drains, traps, toilets, etc.
How to winterize pipes: frost protection for plumbing systems. Use of heat tapes, heat sources, pipe routing, to prevent freezing pipes POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about how to protect buildings, piping, heating equipment, water softeners, wells, & foundations from freezing, ice, & frost damage REFERENCES

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Building winterizing or freeze-proofing guide: this article series provides step by step details in winterizing a building or freeze protection for buildings where heat may be lowered or left turned off. Avoiding freezing pipes in buildings also means avoiding later leaks, water damage, or possibly...

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OK, I'm not a physicist, but from what little I remember about the water molecule, here goes.

At temperature above freezing, the water molecules are all jiggling about. That keeps them free to move.

As temperature falls, the molecules give up energy to the environment and the jiggling slows down.

Due to the weak bond attraction between the Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms of adjacent molecules, there is a preferred crystal structure in the solid state of ice.

Somehow (beyond my knowledge), the hydrogen atoms have a preferred arrangement in a hexagon. Hence we get beautiful snow flake patterns.

Here's the outcome then. In order to achieve the stable crystalline state, the molecular forces prefer a certain packing order, and this takes a greater volume than when the water molecules can move more freely. Think of it as the oxygen atoms pulling the hydrogen atoms into a certain position, and this crystal has more space (taking greater volume) compared to...

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