What are the 4-wire cables use for?

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Those cables have totally different applications. On the left, you have common household power cable in the modern EU (IEC) colors:

Ground: mandatory green/yellow Neutral: mandatory blue (today; older installations use other colors) Hot: by common practice, brown

The American equivalent is bare-white-black. These colors in 14-2 Romex (jacketed cable; 14 gauge; 2 conductors +ground) is used all over the place in every US home.

The right is for three-phase power, specifically "delta" power (which by definition does not have a neutral.) That is why there is no blue "neutral" in the bundle. This is bigger power, for heavier loads such as factory lighting or air conditioning in a large retail store.

It'd be an odd duck in residences — while three-phase "wye" power comes down your street (230 V to neutral, 400 V phase to phase), it's rare to pull all 3 phases into a home. Probably more common in a townhouse (mansion) or a 12-unit apartment block. Because of its...

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Hi,

I have read that only 4 wires are used for an ethernet cable. I have also see that we can found on internet some cat5 splitter allowing to have two devices on one cable as long as you put two splitters on the wire extremities. So, I have some phone wires in my house and would like to use them (4 wires) in order to wired some rooms. I try to create a test cable with two RJ45 with only the first two pairs wired. (1,2,3,6) on both side. Using this cable, my router hasn't been able to see the connected PC :-(

Was it too simple to be true ? Do I need to do something with the other wire (4,5,7,8). If this apporach works, what level of bandwidth could I expect ?

Thank you for your...

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Originally, 8 wires were chosen to that cabling deployments could survive changes in technologies, for future use. Ethernet, for example only uses wires 1, 2, 3, and 6, leaving 4 unused. Token Ring used 3, 4, 5, and 6, again leaving 4 unused. Early in my career I worked for Shell Oil. Someone there had what was believed to be a clever idea and we actually ran both Ethernet and Token Ring in the same cable, breaking out 4 wires for one and 4 for the other when terminating them. This was when Ethernet over UTP was still new and only ran at 10 Mb/s half duplex. I am pretty certain that you could not get away with this today while trying to support Gigabit Ethernet.

Fortunately, adding in 4 more wires allowed for the development of other solutions. The most important of these is 802.3af and 802.3at, or Power over Ethernet. PoE uses wires 4, 5, 7, and 8. Add to that wires 1, 2, 3, and 6 used by Ethernet and you have all 8 wires in use.

Other protocols that have not...

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Now, in this article, we will know how to detect and reconnect the wires inside the USB cable because it is just very easy. It has only four wires. We will explain more in this hub on how to connect the same color coding of wire inside a USB.

It is easy to connect the wires inside your USB cable if you know the colors there. Basically, if you find that the red wire is disconnected just skin it or remove the insulator of the wire and connect to the same color itself. It is just as easy as that.

You can use soldering iron and soldering lead to fix the connection properly by heat.

Know that the colors of wire inside a USB have various designations for their function. Inside the four wires of a USB has a bronze material which is the conductor to have the proper and complete connection of the circuit.

The four (4) wires inside a USB

It has been mentioned in my previous hub but to clarify more, this hub is made. Now, what are the four wires inside the...

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I think that maybe you're thinking about it from the wrong direction. In a

more interesting order: CAT5 was made. Ethernet uses CAT5. CAT5 can be

used for all sorts of things from home entertainment speaker wire to

supplying power to small DC devices.

Ethernet usage didn't define CAT5, rather the usage of CAT5 is 'standard'
probably for future expansion needs in telephone service wiring. 4 pair
(CAT5) cable is cheap, allows for expansion, and while you could do it
with just a couple of pairs - what do you do about when the next
generation of comes (and note that it already has arrived) needing
additional wiring? Re-run the entire building? I suspect that it was from
planning ahead more than anything.

My guess for the "why" (and I couldn't find a reason) is
expansion/upgradability and, well, it was already on hand and it was
already being mass produced. Fortunately it is the 'standard' so that we
can...

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Wire and cable are not the same thing. Learn in the article below what the difference is exactly and also what types or cord are used for the most common purposes.

Wire and cable safety tips:

Although wire and cable are not the same thing, there are a few common rules of safety regarding them both.

Follow manufacturer’s instruction and use correct cable and wire. Damaged or torn cords should be replaced! Do not try to repair them. Make sure all cords in your home are polarised and have safety closures. When using an extension cord, make sure it can carry the right amount of electrical load you need. Attaching two extension cords to reach required length is not safe. Keep cords out of reach of children and where people can trip on them. Do not use non-polarised receptacles. Cord should be permanently attached to the plug and connector so that no exposed wire can be seen. Do not place cords under furniture or carpets.

creative commons license Wire trade...

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"I try to view the challenges in my life not as annoyances, but as confirmations of fortitude." -- Oprah Winfrey

© 2018 IEEE GlobalSpec. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without...

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1. What are the salient differences between Copper and Aluminum conductor?

Copper is the commonly used conductor. It has higher conductivity and heavier compared to Aluminum, and usually costs more. Although Aluminum has lower cost, greater size or cables of Aluminum is needed to match the conductivity offered by copper. Either way the cost offsets.

2. Do solid conductors have better conductivity than the stranded ones?

Yes to a certain extent, although the variation is considered to be negligible.
The choice would depend on the level of flexibility needed in the application of wires and cables. Stranded conductors are more flexible and are more preferred when applied to winding installation. Due to its lower ...

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This is an interesting question since I've never seen anything that authoritatively states the design decisions behind that choice. Everything that I've come across, whether on the Interwebs or from conversation with people smarter than me in this area, seem to indicate two possibilities:

Future proofing Extra shielding

Future Proofing

By the time of the Cat5 spec we had seen the explosion of data cable runs. Telephone had been using Cat3, or something similar for some time, serial connections had been run throughout University campuses, ThickNet had spidered its way around, ThinNet had started to see significant use in microcomputer labs and in some cases offices. It was obvious that networking computing equipment was the wave of the future. We had also learned the terrible costs of changing out cabling to meet the demands of longer segments or higher speeds. Let's face it, replacing cabling is a nightmarish chore and expensive.

The notion of limiting this...

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This FAQ deals with various topics relating to wiring of all kinds.

A number of the descriptions below mention TIA/EIA (or even EIA/TIA). EIA was the old Electronics Industry Association which was dissolved in February 2011. Responsibilities for all the cabling stuff was taken over by TIA. One day we'll get round to cleaning up the references. But don't hold your breath.

Who sets the standards for wiring? Who sets the standards for LAN wiring? Who sets the RS232 standards? What is the difference between RS232 and V.24 (or V.28)? What is a EIA/TIA 574 (Hint: its got 9 pins)? What is category 5 (or Category 5e) cabling?. What is the difference between category 3, 4 etc?. Can I use silver satin cables for LAN cables? What is EIA/TIA 568A and 568B wiring? Can I use a DB25 connector for V.35 connections? Is there a difference between telephone wiring and LAN wiring? What is the difference between RS232 and RS232C? What is RS232D? What is an 8 Position Modular...
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Solar Panel Connectors and Cables

NOTE: There are multiple types of interlocking PV connectors. This article addresses MC4 connectors, but the same principles apply to other connectors such as Amphenol H4, Tyco, and SMK.

What is an MC4 connector (male connector & female connector) and an MC4 extension cable (8ft, 15ft, 30ft, 50ft, 100ft)? If you're asking this question, you've probably noticed that most modern high power solar modules are manufactured with wire leads that have MC4 connectors on the ends. Years ago, solar modules were built with a junction box on the back that required the installer to manually attach wires to the positive and negative terminal posts. This method is still used, but it's slowly becoming a thing of the past. Modern solar modules tend to use the MC4 connectors because they make wiring your solar array much simpler and faster. The connectors come in both male and female types which are designed to snap together. They meet the requirements...

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I ended up doing some tests myself, and the results were... frankly appalling.

TLDR: Throw out the cable.

Now on to some science.

To address some concerns that were stated in the comments - The initial testing was done on a undamaged cable - I only cut it open after the speed tests. I've repeated the tests with an identical cable from the same kit, and have found the same results. I've also repeated the tests with the 'proper' cat 5 cables with 4 other cables.

I tested this by connecting two systems to the same switch, and swapping out the cable on one of them. I also used the free version of lan speed test to do some 'quick' performance testing . I'm running the test from my laptop to to a share on a 3tb 7200 rpm drive on my desktop. I'm testing the cables at this point, not overall bandwidth, under conditions reasonably similar to realworld situations for me.

I was thinking of doing a direct system to system speed test as well, without the...

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Recent Additions to Our Line of Interconnect Cables -

HP / Agilent / Keysight 11679A Extension Cable, 7.6 m

The 11679A cable extends the distance between the scalar network analyzer and the detector or bridge without degradation of performance. We build these to order using new connectors and OEM cable. These cables are no longer available form Keysight. Standard length is 7.6 m (25 ft).
Order P/N 11679A-25 = $165.00
Click for pictures and additional information

HP / Agilent / Keysight 432A or 432B Power Meter

We have a few cables that are used to connect the HP 432A/B power meters to the thermistor sensor. These are used OEM cables, but they have been cleaned and fully tested on OEM equipment. They may have a few nicks and scratches, but are fully functional cables. Current Keysight price is $661. Length is 5 ft.
Order P/N 8120-1082 = $65.00 (4 in stock)
Click for picture

Agilent / Keysight 8546A 8542E EMI...

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Updated by Gavin Phillips on 04/24/2017

I really hate Wi-Fi, and you should too. If you own your own home or your landlord doesn’t mind a few holes in the wall, running gigabit Ethernet around the house is the best thing you can do for a faster computing experience. But what’s all this about Cat 6 or crossover cables? Here’s everything you need to know about Ethernet cabling.

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First check the pinout connections and specifications of the devices you want to connect in

order to determine whether you need a “2-wire” RS-485 connection or a “4-wire” RS-422/RS-

485 connection. Termination is not required for baud rates 19.2K or lower at distances up to

4000 ft.(1220 m), so it is not shown in the simplified figures which follow. (see note on page 3

regarding markings and pinouts)


Set the Switches 1 & 2 Up to ON to bridge the Transmitter and Receiver across the same two

wires, set Switch 4 up to ON for half duplex operation (no echo). Switch 3 down/OFF=No

Termination, unless your serial baud rate is 38.4Kbps or higher.


If the radio modems are being used to send data in only one direction, the Receive Terminals are

the Inputs, the Transmit Terminals are the Outputs. Connect the signal source to the RD(A)-,

RD(B)+, and GND. GND is typically a separate connection...

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"CAT-5" is a nickname for cable with four wire pairs that each meet the "Catagory 5" specification for data communications. The specification defines the conductor size, insulation quality and wire twists, plus a multitude of performance characteristics. In theory, all CAT-5 cables perform the same, supporting data transmissions up to 100MB/s. A more stringent cable specification is "Catagory 6"("CAT-6"), supporting data transmissions up to 1GB/s. A less stringent specification is "Catagory 3"("CAT-3"), supporting data transmissions of only 10MB/s or less.

CAT-5 cables have 4 wire pairs, making a total of 8 wires. Each pair is twisted together (you've probably heard the phrase "twisted pair" before) to reduce signal interference. The biggest factor between the catagory specifications is the number of twists per linear unit. The more twists, the greater the signal integrity. Data signals are sent over the wire using a differential method. With tighter twists, any...

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